Graphene is an allotrope (variant) of carbon, naturally found in graphite. Graphene is only one molecular layer thick and therefor known as two dimensional.
Scientists have known about graphene for over a hundred years, but it was not successfully isolated until 2004. Since then, strong research efforts have led to a broad knowledge of the subject.

Graphene possesses a unique combination of superior properties. It is the thinnest, strongest and lightest compound known to man. And when graphene is mixed with other materials, its properties are transferred, creating a disruptive cocktail in materials technology.

This special material has the following unique features:

Thin – only one atom thick (therefore "two-dimensional")
Lightweight – a sheet of one square meter weighs less than  1 mg
Hard – harder than diamond
Strong – 200-300 times stronger than steel
Impervious – comes in both solid, gas and liquid
Conductive – better electrical conductivity than copper
Transparent – lets through most wavelengths of light
Bendable – can adopt to any shape